Previously: Which Iberia?
If you see a reference in a history book to a place called Alexandria, don’t assume the reference is to the famous city of that name in Egypt. When Alexander the Great conquered the known world 2500 years ago, he left in his wake a string of cities, towns, and forts known as “Alexandria.” Some of those cities exist today, others are archaological ruins, while others are only rumored to have existed. One complete list can be found here, and an approximate map is below.
Alexandria Settlements in the Ancient World
Note that some of these may have been founded by Alexander’s heirs, and some modern cities such as Kabul have taken the name from the old Alexandria, even though the actual location is somewhat different.
There are other places by the name of Alexandria in the Old World unrelated to Alexander’s conquest. There is Alexandria in Romania, Alexandreia in Greece, Alexandria in Scotland, Oleksandriia in the Ukraine, and Alessandria and Alessandria del Carretto in Italy, among others.
Alexandria Settlements in the Medieval World
Then with the 18th and 19th centuries, colonialism brought new Alexandrias across the globe. There is an Alexandria in South Africa, two places by that name in Canada, three in Australia, and more than a dozen such places with the name in the United States.
Alexandria Settlements in the New World