Goal: Resources; Containing Taiwan
China has hosted the world leaders of just about all African party nations, primarily because of China’s thirst for resources continues unabated, but also because to contain the political recognition of Taiwan. Although both China and many African countries have come away with benefits, they have been skewed in favour of China, and the relationship has been dogged by controversy.
Goal: Business Ties; Political support
Dehli has long eyed Africa’s for business opportunities, but the approach is ad hoc and piecemeal, and often all rhetoric with little substance, except in terms of exporting labour to Africa. Part of this is hindered by the fact that in many ways, India remains a developing region like Africa (so is China, but in a different way). Then there is UNSC membersip, an exclusive tier of nations that India dreams to join to solidify its status as a world power. The political equation of gaining a permanent seat in the UN Security Council, or in the case of Taiwan, simply being allowed to join the UN, requires block support, which is where Africa comes in.
Goal: Political Support; New Markets
Japan has the vaguest goals in Africa. Like India, Japan wants a seat on the UNSC. It also wants support on international treaties regarding everything from global warming to whaling. But Japan may hold the greatest hope for Africa if it can help growth in the same way it helped Thailand, where the largest Japanese manufacturers, anxious to escape the high costs of labour and production in Japan, built not just roads and dams, but also industrial parks. One interesting fact not noted in the article is that Africa is increasingly becoming a market for Japanese goods, such as the growth in exports of automobiles from Japan to Africa, while exports to other markets have stagnated or dropped.
The author believes that Africa has potential to be powerful, because more and more emerging major powers need its resources and support. But because it is not unified, it ends up being treated like a political football, where African leaders make agreements and pledge support in exchange for “promises” of aid, to which the author writes:
When are people going to realise that no country ever achieved economic independence and industrial growth on the basis of aid?… Aid in Africa has done little to change the continent’s fortunes. A lot of the so-called official development assistance ends up in the black hole of institutionalised graft. The so-called soft loans end up becoming a millstone around the necks of millions who never benefited from the handouts…. At least the Indians did not go on and on about aid. Instead they spoke of partnerships, whatever that means.